August 30, 2004
GEO100TTh 4:00-5:15WH D165 Human GeographyDr. Hay

September 1, 2004
What is Human (cultural) Geography What is Culture Chapter 1 Geography Matters
    A. Place 1) unique 2) influential 3) interdependent B. Globalization - Increasing Interconnectedness of different parts of the world.
    1. Economic - multi national corporations (management, manufacturing, sales).
    2. Environment - global concept (warming).
    3. Political - U. N, Kyoto Protocol, NAFTA.
    4. Cultural - rock n roll, levies, McDonald's (fast food).
    C. Studying Geography
    1. Maps.
    2. Space analysis -- a) location b) distance (in miles or in time) c) space/shape d) accessability e) spatial interaction i) positions in psychology, Freud & free association, Sullivan & schizophrenia, William Reich & direction giving, Gestalt & assorted positions.
September 6, 2004
Types of space
    Human             Physical
      |         |        |
    Types Of SpaceFilm Demonstration
    NatureNational Geographic
    Nature / HumanNever Cry Wolf
    Urban (food, language, technology)   Blade Runner
    Manufactured (interior)Alien
    Outer Space, Dream SpaceStar Trek
September 8, 2004
The Five Fundamental Themes of Geography
  1. Location - absolute or relative
  2. Place - human & physical characteristics (i. e. population maps)
  3. Human environment interaction (i. e. shake map of San Francisco)
  4. Movement map - traffic, bird migration, whale migration, travel.
  5. Region - areas with similar characteristics.
Visit or

I. Why Maps
  1. Record, communicate information.
  2. Indicate distance & direction ( traffic).
  3. Patterns formed by distribution on earths surface.
II. The Geographic Grid
    A) Latitude & longitude
      1. Claudius Ptolemy - 2nd Century AD, Alexandria, Egypt.
      2. Used angular measurements (chaldrens).
    B) Latitude - north & south measurements on the globe
      1. Range is 0° - 90° north & south.
      2. Lines run horizontally around the globe.
    C) Longitude
      1. Lines always go through the poles.
      2. They run vertically.
      3. Range 0° - 180° east & west.
      4. East & west measurements.
    D) Degrees, minutes, seconds.
      Zero to one degree latitude ≈ 111 kilometers or ≈ 69 miles.
      1° = 60 minutes, 60'.
        Latin root: minutiae primary, minutiae, secondary.
      1' = 60 seconds, 60".
September 14, 2004
    D) Notation degrees (°), minutes ('), seconds ("). 42° 30' N.
      Some atlases use decimal. i. e. 42.5° -- -- -- 42° 30.5' = 42° 30' 30".
    E) Names of lines of latitude & longitude.
      1. Latitude parallels, (latitude fatitude).
        Mnemonic memory tools, parallels of latitude.
      2. Meridians of longitude, (the long measurement of a human is top to bottom).
      3. Prime Meridian.
III. Map Requirements
    A. Title -- Five Themes of Geography: 1) location 2) place 3) human interaction 4) movement 5) region.
    B. North arrow -- 1) north 2) magnetic north 3) grid north.
      Declination is the coordinate difference between magnetic and grid north.
    C. Scale -- distance.
      1) representative fraction -- 1 / 10 or 1 : 10 (no units involved).
      2) written expression -- 1" = 12,000,000 -- or -- 1" = 1,000,000'.
      3) graphic scale --
    D. Legend -- what different colors or symbols mean.
    E. Geographic grids or boundaries.
    F. Source -- who made it.
    G. Date -- things change.
    H. Projections there is distortion at the poles.
      1. Mercator or cylindrical projections are distortion prone.
      2. Conical projections are good for mid-latitudes. There is also polyconic.
      3. Planar / Polar.
      Find 47° 30' N 19° 05' E
September 16, 2004
Chapter 2
Globalization refers to the increasing political, economic and cultural interconnectedness of different places around the world.
The emergence of a global hierarchy of countries based on political & economic power as well as cultural influence.
The world is characterized by high levels of political and economic competition between places and regions as well as by increasing levels of interdependence.
Countries that dominate are called core countries. Dominated, less diversified countries are called periphery countries. In between are the so called semi-periphery.
The core became dominate because it has the capital and the power.

The pace of international migration has accelerated as a result of:
  1. Technological innovations, especially in travel.
  2. The international economy's flip side is a disruption in local economies.
Geographers call this time-space compression.
International migration has created new kinds of social landscapes and a dual national identity, bi-nationalism.
      2000 U. S. census
      U. S. A.12.57.3
      L. A. County44.632
      % Latino% Mexican
The spread and dominance of the capitalist economic system is dominated by fewer and fewer large multinational corporations.
The various components of globalization include:
    The displacement of traditional political & economic entities.
    Environmental issues are transnational.
    Widening gulf between rich & poor, and the erosion of a middle class.
    Cultural-hybridization, the spreading, mixing, and blending of styles.
    Political interconnectedness through colonialism, warfare, treaty, and supranational organizations.
    Widespread local resistance to extra-local & global domination.
September 21, 2004
Chapter 3 - Geographies of Population September 23, 2004
California's population is 34.5 million. That is a 4% increase over 2000.
Demographic Regions Millions Of People % Of World
Latin America5258.5
North America3165
New Zealand
Pacific Islands
    If every one on the planet was given 4' sq., side by side, we would take up ≈ 800 sq. miles (28.8 mi. X 28.8 mi.).
    Factors Controlling Population
      Climate -- too cold, to hot, temperate.
      Water -- 75% of earth is water.
      Standards of living -- job opportunitiesfamily environment
      health caresecurity / crime / terrorism
    100 people per square mile is dense for farming but sparse for industrial work.
B. Physiological Density -- The "S" shaped curve:
    theoretically, after initial explosive growth, a populations growth must level off when it reaches the limit of it's resources.

  1. Patterns of natality (birth).
      A. Do not necessarily correspond to highly populated areas.
      B. Reason for more birth in less developed countries:
        farm labor
        religious beliefs
        high infant mortality rates
        support in old age
      C. There are higher birth rates where the women are uneducated.
  2. Patterns of mortality
      A. Related to birth rates.
      B. Postponed by technological advances.
      C. Higher rate in older populations.
  3. Population explosion -- "J" shaped curve:
      Human Population Growth.

      The population is expected to double by 2050, primarily due to a decrease in the death rate.
      The human population on this planet first reached one billion in the early 1800's. It took around 25 million years to to that.
      YearYrs Since
      Last Billion
      In Billions
      ≈ 182025 million 1
September 28, 2004
  1. Perception of Population Growth
      A. Malthusians -- Thomas Malthus (≈ 1800) wrote Essays On The Principles Of Population. An economist, he was concerned with and writing about the food supply. Population increases geometrically 2, 4, 8, 16, 32. But agricultural production increases arithmetically 1, 2, 3, 4, 5. He expected the world to run out of food. So far it hasn't happened because of technological advances, i. e. hybridization and propagation.
      B. Cornucopeans -- (horn of plenty) believe that we will always have food because humans will always be able to conquer nature.
      C. The answer is in the middle.
  2. Geography of Population Growth
  3. Age and gender population.
      A. Population pyramids.
      B.Population equation T P = N I + N M
      WhereT P = total population
      N I = natural increases ( births - deaths)
      N M = net migration (immigration - emigration)
  4. Standard of Living -- income, crime, health care, education, political freedom.
  5. Push-pull factors.
September 30, 2004
C. Diffusion in population geography
  1. Types of diffusion
      a. Contagious Diffusion -- transmitted from knower to non-knower, who then becomes a knower and transmits to other non-knowers, who become... There must be human contact.
      b. Relocation diffusion -- to move to a new area, i. e. missionaries.
      c. Hierarchal diffusion -- skips those not in the loop.
  2. Migration -- groups
      a. Voluntary.
        in between.
      b. Forced.
      These are identified by push pull factors
  3. Relocation migration
      a. Move a great distance.
      b. Push pull factors.
      c. The root causes are deep / there is no alternative.
D. Population Ecology -- populations ability to adapt to new environments.
    Pre adaptation -- pre conditional to survive in a place like the one you know, i. e. similar food resources.
  1. Environmental influences
      a. Natural resources -- conditions of physical environment, terrain, climate, vegetation. "Topophilia" is the love of the land. Most people want to live in a place that resembles where they grew up.
      b. Historically people preferred to live around water for food, trade, and transportation.
  2. Environmental perceptions -- views of the environment change over time.
      Dr. Hay displayed containers of sun tan and sun screen lotion. The only difference on the labels were the words "tan" and "screen". To much sun in now considered negatively.
  3. Population density -- environmental alteration -- uneven resource consumption.
      The U. S. consumes 40% of the worlds resources but has only 5% of the worlds population.
      The test scheduled next Tuesday is postponed to Thursday.
October 5, 2004
E. Cultural Integration & Population Patterns.
  1. Cultural Factors
      a. Food -- where it's grown
      1. S. E. Asia -- rice (wet lowlands)
      2. Ireland -- potatoes - in the 1700's potatoes were imported from Peru. More food was produced per acre, and that allowed an increase in the population. Unfortunately, the potato blight caused starvation and a huge migration. Then the population decreased.
      b. Family Size -- In Central Brazil there are two tribes:
      1. Tapirape -- limit family size so they can eat meat. Each family is limited to three children, two of the same gender. The population enforces this with infanticide.
      2. Tenetehara -- there is no population control. The local population has decimated local game. They rarely have meat on the table.
      c. Religious Beliefs -- Some stay close to home.
      1. Chinese take care of ancestral graves. They can't go far from home.
      2. Navajo bury the umbilical cord in the "hogan", thereby tying the infant to the land.
      3. In N. W. India women marry outside their village, to prevent incestuous birth defects.
      4. The Irish have proven to be very willing to migrate. The current population is 1/2 of what it was in 1840.
  2. Political Factors -- Government Factors Restricting Migration.
      a. Chinese and Thai are restricted.
      b. Haiti has 600 people per square mile. To protect it's standard of living, the Dominican Republic has closed it's border, to keep them out.
  3. Economic Factors
    1. a. Industrialization (last 200 years). The majority of the population moved from rural areas to the cities.
      b. There has been a major change from substance agriculture to either commercial agriculture or a plantation system.

October 7, 2004 Test I

October 12, 2004
Test Results: 5 A's, 8 B's, 19 C's, 7 D's, and 1 F.
Saw slides from around the world that highlighted cultural architecture.

October 14, 2004
Extra Credit handout
Chapter IV
I. Nature, Society, & Technology.
    A. Nature.
    1. Nature as a physical construct as well as a social construct.
        a. A product of the times & needs (human understanding).
          Today conservation means "preservation".
          In 1940 it meant "total use".
        b. The way we perceive nature changes.
          We used to say that old forests were "dark and forboding".
          Now we call them "old growth forest".
        c. Environmental determinism:
        • Around 1920, Ellen Churchill Semple said people are a product of their environment. So I ask, are all people from Kentucky long, lean, and not to bright, as people from Kentucky are known to be.
        • The French Geographer Ratzel noted that all the smart people seemed to live in the lowlands, by the river. Therefore, he claimed, mountain environments made people dumb.
        • Eventually environmental determinism was dismissed.
    B. Society
    1. Sum of inventions, institutions, and relationships created by people.
    2. Society and Nature are interrelated.
        a. Nature is created by society.
        b. Relationship between nature & society is mediated by technology.
    C. Technology
    1. There are three components of technology.
        a. Physical objects or artifacts such as "the plow" or "Swiss Army Knives".
        b. Activities or processes such as "steel making" and "brewing".
        c. Knowledge or know how such as "biological engineering" or "sailing"
    D. Effect of Nature, Society, and Technology on the Environment:
    1. In the last 75 years a species has become capable of destroying the planet.
    2. Factors
        a. number of people.
        b. money (per capital income).
        c. technology.
    3. Formula:   I = P A T, where
        I = impact on earth
        P = population
        A = affluence (money)
        T = technology
      The formula is complex. i. e. Is more people "good" or "bad"?

October 19, 2004
Extra Credit Candidate: the movie Macumba, Trance and Spirit Healing, Wednesday, October 20, 2004, WH D470, 12:00 - 1:00.

II. Religious Perspectives on Nature

Power Point Presentation:

October 21, 2004
Homwork assignment: Record all the clothes you wear for 7 days. Note the type of clothing and the place of manufacture. See Home Work 2 hand out.
Next Extra Credit chance: Folk Healing In The Mayan Culture, Wednesday, October 27, noon, WH C490B.

I. Mapping Cultural Identities

    A. Cultural as a geographic process
    1. Culture - a shared set of meanings that we live through material and symbolic practices in every day life.
    2. Cultural landscape - the material expression of culture (Carl Sauer) as humans impact the natural environment.
    B. Cultural Geography
    1. Humans use culture to shape place and landscape.
    2. Space, place, and landscape shape culture.
    C. Cultural Complexes
    1. Combination of traits and characteristics that are particular to one group.
      • Working class culture - hard working, blue collar work, low wages, family, high morals.
      • Hip hop culture - white tees, jewelry (bling bling).
      • Corporate culture.
      • NASCAR culture.
II. Geography And Language
    A. Language
    1. Condition or essence of culture.
    2. Single most important culture variable.
    3. Basic for learning other cultural elements.
    B. Terminology
    1. Language - basic linguistic unit. These are not mutually intelligible.
    2. Dialect - varies in pronunciation, grammer, and spelling. These are mutually intelligible.
    3. Pidgin - small vocabulary created from parts of other languages. They are created for the sake of business.
    4. Lingua (tongue) Franca - mutually understood language. It has an elevated status.
        The worlds Lingua Franca is English.
        Swahili is the trade language in East Africa.
        Wolof is the trade language of West Africa.
          salam mulicum - peace to you
          mulicum salam - peace to you also
          nanga def - how are you
          mangi fe rek - OK, I'm here
          anawa ker ga - how's the family house
          nunga fa - they're there
          al hum delali - go with god

October 26, 2004
Lingua Franca - World - English
Dialect vs. Language, ebonics is iffy.

    C. Linguistic Culture Region
    1. There are between 2,500 - 4, 000 languages. Some say there are more that 6,000.
        a. Limited information about isolated areas.
        b. Difficult to determine if something is a dialect or a language.
        c. Difficult to specify boundaries.
          Isogloss - language region borders.
    2. Language Families - Languages descending from a common ancestor.
        Latin (Romance Languages)
        1. Spoken by the upper class in the Roman Empire (27 B.C. - 284 A.D.).
        2. Spread to colonies.
        3. With the fall of the empire, communication channels collapsed.
        4. People became isolated.
        5. Different dialects and languages formed.
        6. The Romance languages are Spanish, Portuguese, French, Italian, and Romanian.
    3. Major Language Families
        a. Indo - European, the largest
        1. English has 443 million speakers. It is also 80% of computer technology.
        2. Hindi had 352 million speakers.
        3. Spanish has 341 million speakers.
        4. Russian had 293 million speakers.
        5. Bengali
        6. Portuguese
        7. French
        8. German
        b. Afro Asiatic (Hammo Semitic)
        1. Arabic has 200 million speakers.
        2. Hebrew was largely a ceremonial language until 1947. As Israelis spoke a polyglot of languages, the government set a common language, an updated Hebrew.
        c. Niger - Congo (the Bantu subgroup has over 80 languages).
          It is a "Shatterbelt of linguistic diversity".
        d. Malayo Polynesian
        1. Sino Tibetan - Chinese has 850 million speakers.
        2. Altaic - Turkey, Mongolian, Korea, Japan.

October 28, 2004
Extra Credit Candidates

    Day of the dead celebration - CSUDH, Friday, film, 12:00 LCH A103
    Bowers Museum - "Unveiling the Queen of Sheeba", Santa Ana
Power Point Presentation On Symbolization
    Historical History - old and new.
    Restroom Symbols.
    Palimpsest - when an artist reuses a canvas
      the building in the slide was once a Masonic Temple, movie theater, hardware store. The architecture showed all three.
    Symbolic Landscape
      pyramids, Statue of Liberty, gang graffiti.
    Sacred Landscapes
      Mecca, Dome of the Rock, traffic fatality shrine, Ganges River.
    Derelict Landscapes
      bombing range, inner city, abandoned steel mill.
    Military Landscapes.
    Urban Landscapes.
    Agriculture landscapes.
    Due to globalization, places & landscapes are less distinct.
    The privileging of private spaces, restricted access and surveillance, commercial space over public space.
    D. Linguistic Landscapes
    1. Imprint of language on the cultural and visible landscape.
        Formal - bill boards.
        Informal - graffiti.
    2. Words effect perception.
        Think of "NYC".
        Now put the word "crime" in front of that.
        Now put "corporate" in front of that.

November 2, 2004

    No class Thursday, November 11th
III. Religious Realms
    A. Religion - a set of beliefs and practices.
    1. Reasons for religion.
        a. Explanations and understandings of nature.
        b. Set of morals or rules to live by.
        c. Provides organization for beliefs and practices.
    B. Geography Of Religions.
    1. Sacred Space - special places of worship.
        a. Jerusalem - Jews / Christians / Muslims.
        b. Mecca
    2. Less Formally - churches, larger meeting areas.
        Parishes, congregations.
    3. Religion impacts where people can go.
    C. Two Major Categories Of Religion.
    1. Proselytic or Evangelizing - actively seeking converts.
    2. Ethnic - born into the religion, not actively seeking membership.
        Jewish, Animist.
    D. Origins Of Major Religions - Two Areas
    1. Middle East (fertile crescent between the Tigress and Euphrates Rivers)
        Judaism - 4,000 years old.
        Christianity - 2,000 years old.
        Islam - 1,300 years old.
    2. Semitic speaking people of the dry lands
    3. Indus - Ganges Hearth (northern India)
        Hinduism - 4,000 yrs old.
        Buddhism - 2,500 years old.
    E. Major And Minor Religions
      Major - Christianity, Islam, Hinduism, Buddhism.
      Minor - Judaism, Animism.

November 4, 2004
Test Tuesday, Nov. 16, 2004.

More On Regions. They are:

    E. Major And Minor Religions
      Major - Christianity, Islam, Hinduism, Buddhism.
      Minor - Judaism, Animism.
    1. Christianity
        a. Greatest number of members - 1.9 billion, almost a third of the world's population
        b. Widely dispersed.
        c. Mostly Catholic and in Europe and Latin America.
        d. Fragmented into many groups.
          1) Two main groups, western and eastern.
            a) Western groups are mostly Catholic, about 20% of the world population.
            b) Protestants (reformation was in the 1400 and 1500s). There are Baptists, Mormon, Lutheran, Flagellants (1800's), Episcopal, Methodist, ...
          2) Eastern Christian (Greek)
            a) Coptic Christians - Egypt (minority), Ethiopian Highlands.
            b) Eastern Orthodox - split from Greek. Majority in Greece, Russia, and Serbia.
    2. Islam - Arabic for submission to God.
        a. Origin - Saudi Arabia.
        b. Mecca - the city where Muhammad received his revelations from God (Allah).
        c. Monotheistic - one God.
        d. Major duties - the Five Pillars.
          1) There is only one God, Mohammed is his prophet.
          2) Pray 5 times per day, facing Mecca.
          3) Fast from sunrise to sunset during the holy month of Ramadan.
          4) Give alms to the poor.
          5) Make a pilgrimage to Mecca once in your life, Hajj.
        e. Islamic teachings provided a unifying life style.
          1) Set of values, dignity to the Arab world.
          2) Originally there was feudal chaos.
        f. Geographic Diffusion.
          1) Universalizing faith.
          2) North Africa, south west Asia, and south east Asia.
          3) The largest concentration of followers is in Indonesia.
          4) There are 820 million followers.
        g. Split based on successor to Muhammad.
          1) Sunnite (orthodox) - majority.
          2) Shiite - 11% of the total. In Iran they have the Ayatollah. Shiites pay zakat (alms) to the holy people.

November 9, 2004
    1. Judaism
        a. Geography, fertile crescent
        1. 1.8 million followers - 40% are in the U. S., 25% in Israel, and 20% in Europe.
        b. Major Beliefs
        1. God as creator.
        2. Monotheistic.
        3. God is above nature.
        4. Abraham was called on to build the nation of Israel.
        5. Prophet - Moses.
        6. Old Testament
        c. History
        1. They inhabited Israel until 70 A. D.
        2. Then the Romans destroyed Jerusalem.
        3. A period of dispersal began.
        4. Usually they were a persecuted minority.
        5. The Zionist movement began in the 20th Century. Zion is a hill in Jerusalem, a sacred place. A third of all Jews were killed during W. W. II. Those remaining pushed for a homeland. After W. W. II Palestine and Jordan were under British rule. In 1948 the U. N. recognized Israel as a country. A world wide migration began.
        6. The creation of Israel was not well accepted in the Arab world. Battles over land forced Palestinians into refugee camps in Lebanon and Jordan.
    2. Hinduism
        a. 650 million followers.
        b. Origin - Indus Ganges Hearth.
        c. Polytheistic.
        d. The caste system is based on ancestry. Your occupation is based on your caste. You change castes through reincarnation.
        e. They do not eat beef.
        f. Sikhism (1500s), Hindus joining Islamic religion.
        1. Rejected the caste system.
        2. N. W. India
        3. 1.8 million followers.
        4. One god.
    3. Buddhism
        a. There may be 300 million followers. Different variations incorporated existing religions so there is a issue of specificity.
        b. Reform movement within Hinduism with no caste system.
        c. Prince Siddhartha was the founder.
        1. Lived a life of luxury until he was 29.
        2. Mediated until reaching enlightenment.
        3. Wandered from place to place.
        d. Oral teaching, no written record.
        e. The Four Nobel Truths.
        1. Life is suffering.
        2. Desire is the cause of all suffering.
        3. Stop desiring, stop suffering.
        4. Eight-fold path. The 3 categories are morality, wisdom, and concentration.
        f. It merged with Taoism, Confucianism, and Shintaoism in China, Japan and Tibet.
    4. Animism
        a. Tribal people not practicing a major religion.
        b. Inanimate objects have spirits.
        c. A person in the tribe usually acts as an intermediary to the spirits (shaman).
        d. Interior of Africa, Amazon Basin, Central America.
        e. They seem primitive but can be very complex.
Power Point Presentation.
    Gothic (light and airy) Cathedral.
    Catholicism, this is God's house.
    Protestant have assembly halls.
    Mormon Temple with the Angel Moroni at the top.
    Mosque with minarets and domes.
    Buddhist pagodas. They are tiered.
    Western Wall in Jerusalem. The Dome of the Rock is right next door.
    Mardi Gras celebration.
    Atonement ritual, evil is transfered into a chicken.

November 11, 2004 No Class

November 16, 2004 Test II

November 18, 2004 Homework III Due
Reviewed the test, grades were about the same.
Watched a movie on Madagascar and their environment. Local farmers are decimating the jungle, home of the Lemur. In an effort to save the jungle, Lemur friendly coffee is being promoted by the Corridor Coffee and Spices Corporation. Coffee growing does less damage than sugar beets.

November 23, 2004
Homework review

    clothes production - 3rd world (developing)
      ┕> low cost of labor.
    China - major manufacturer of every thing.
    Specialty items made in countries that support/enjoy those items (cultural).
    Taiwan - cheaper items.
    Shoes - China/Taiwan/Philippines.
    Specific manufacturers make clothes in one/or many places.
    Manufacturers have access to ports.
Chapter #8: Agriculture And Food Production.
I. Agriculture - tilling crops and rearing animals.
    A. Historically the # 1 activity of humans.
    B. Globally the most important activity economically.
    1. 45% of the worlds population is involved.
        a. Asia - 80% involved.
        b. U. S. - 5% involved - in 1910 there were 32 million farmers in the U. S. Today there is less than 5 million.
        c. Two main categories:
        1. Subsistence (food for personal consumption)
        2. Commercial (food for market, surplus)
Types of Agricultural Regions
  1. Shifting Agriculture
      a. Americas, Indonesia, Africa, SE Asia
      b. Land rotation system
        4-5 years of use, 10-20 years fallow
      c. Intertillage - multiple crops in one area
      d. Low tech, hand tools, little/no fertilizer
      e. Little labor, tending of plants
      f. Little/no livestock
      g. provide more calories than expended when compared to high tech farming
  2. Rice Paddy Farming (paddy - mud diked flooded field)
      a. humid tropical, subtropical Asia (Indian monsoon)
      b. 95% of worlds rice grown in paddies
      c. Labor intensive/double cropping
      d. high output per acre (one hectare supports a farm family in Asia)
  3. Peasant Grain, Root and Livestock Farming
      a. colder dryer parts of Asia (unsuited for paddies) and highlands of Latin America, Africa, Europe
      b. grains; wheat, barley, oats, corn
      c. cash crops; cotton, flax, tobacco
      d. herds; cattle, pigs, sheep
  4. Mediterranean Agriculture
      a. lands bordering the Mediterranean
      b. winter wheat and barley
      c. vine and tree agriculture (grapes, olives)
      d. herding sheep and goats
      e. recently (1850) irrigation has led to citrus and market gardening
  5. Nomadic Herding (continued movement)
      a. desert steppes, Savannah of Africa, Arabia, Asia
      b. people with livestock in search of forage
      c. lowlands - winter - steppes / mountains - summer
      d. now on the decline (Saudi ESON project)
        no feral camels, military, strong chiefs
  6. Plantation Agriculture - talked about Dutch plantations in Java
      a. Tropics/subtropics
      b. Central/South America, Africa, E&W Indies, US South
      c. Large, foreign owned
      d. specialize in one or two crops - sugar cane, bananas, coffee, tobacco
      e. takes land from subsistence agriculture
      f. labor problems - cotton plantation in the Old South
      g. mechanization - neoplantation, people out of work head towards cities
  7. Market Gardening (truck farms)
      a. developed countries
      b. single crop, intensively cultivated
      c. fruits, vegetables, vine crops
      d. near major urban markets for quick transport
          (Japanese vegetable gardens in Colorado - night soil)
  8. Commercial Livestock Fattening
      a. Midwest United States
      b. cattle and hogs
      c. feedlots - raise livestock on commercial feed
      d. not nutritionally efficient
        1 cow eats 21 pounds of protein to produce 1 pound of protein
        food that feeds 250 million US, feeds 1.5 billion Chinese
        1/2 US grain for livestock feed, expanding to Costa Rica, Brazil
  9. Commercial Grain Farming
      a. primarily wheat, also rice and corn
      b. 45% of world's wheat; North America, Ukraine, Russia, Argentina
      c. very large single crop farms - agribusiness
      d. highly mechanized, fertilizers, pesticides, rice sown by airplane
      e. suit case farms
        post WW II
        line of farms North to South
        fleets of machinery, crews
        uninhabited - family farms declining
  10. Commercial Dairying
      a. pastures vs feedlots
      b. Northern US, New England, Midwest, North and West Europe, SE Australia, North New Zealand
      c. close to markets - fluid milk
          far from market - butter (New Zealand) cheese
      d. increasing numbers using the feedlot system
        buy cows ready to produce
        buy feed from outside
  11. Livestock Ranching
      a. similar to nomadic herding, but fixed in place
      b. operate as an individual rather than a tribe
      c. usually in areas too cold for farming
        Argentina - 73% of the world's wool
        Australia - sheep outnumber people 8:1
  12. Non-Agricultural Areas
      a. Everyone before there where agricultural areas
      b. currently < 1%
        Inuit (Eskimos) - movie "Never Cry Wolf" - Aborigines - Australia

November 25, 2004 Thanksgiving Day.

November 30, 2004
III  Origins Of Agricultural Production
    A. Agriculture implies domestication.
    1. Bringing about changes in plants and animals.
        Bigger is better.
          Corn was originally 3/4" long.
          Beefalo - cow and buffalo.
    2. Better suited to societies than conditions of the natural environment.
        Early colonists - cattle grazed in the woods - became feral, smaller but hardy.
        Original grains - not as productive as today's grains but didn't need as much care.
    3. Plant domestication - 10,000 to 15,000 years ago.
        a. Reasons for domestication.
          1) Crops and animals always available.
          2) Increasing population outgrew hunting and gathering.
    4. Domestication increases carrying capacity.
        a. Hunting and gathering supports one person / km2
        b. Early dry farming supports one to 2 people / km2
IV  Two Geographers.
    A. Carl Sauer (1889-1975)
      Studied pre-conditions for plant domestication.
      1. No chronic need for food.
      2. Climate variability.
      3. Various types of plants and animals (a large gene pool).
      4. Other physical requirements, soil ...
      5. Based on these assumptions
          Wet - dry monsoon areas of SE Asia.
          Woodlands (near streams) of India.
          Sedentary fishing / gathering societies.
      6. Others thought it was the "Fertile Crescent" of the Middle East.
      7. Animal domestication (not Sauer)
          Later than crops.
          Possibly religious.
          Animals may have domesticted themselves (dogs and bears get in the garbage).
    B. Johann Von Thunen (1783-1850)
    1. German estate landlord.
    2. Wanted to maximize profits.
    3. Originator of spatial models. He studied different types of agriculture and where it should be located.
    4. Isolated state model
      Using the variables of cost of land, cost of transportation,
      and cost of labor, what order should these things be in?
      1. central city
      2. ranching
      3. livestock fattening
      4. non-agriculture
      5. dairying (pastures)
      6. market gardening
      7. commercial grain farms
December 2, 2004
Chapter 9: Politics Of Territory And Space
I. Political Geography
  1. Study of boundaries.
  2. Strategic use of land / topography.
  3. World balance of power.
    ┕> Geopolitics
  4. Distribution of territory.
  5. Study of voting patterns.
  6. Jurisdiction over maritime space.
II. Terms
  1. State - self governed group occupying a defined territory.
  2. Nation - people united by a common culture.
      They have common historical and/or ethnic roots.
  3. Nation State - people united by a common culture in a defined territory. i.e. Israel.
  4. All space is politically organized. This has come about in the last 150 years.
III. Independent States.
  1. Characteristics of independent states.
  2. There are about 190 independent states.
  3. The largest states are federations of states.
  4. South Africa is a perforated state. It has holes (Swaziland) in it.
  5. Folk Fortress - natural environments that are barriers to opposing forces (oceans, mountains, deserts).
IV. Political Landscapes
  1. Borders - physical representation of a political border.
  2. States - physical representation.
Handout: Study Guide #3

December 7, 2004 Test 3

December 9, 2004

December 14, 2004 Final Exam - 4:00 - 6:00.