August 30, 2004
September 1, 2004
|GEO100||TTh 4:00-5:15||WH D165
||Human Geography||Dr. Hay|
What is Human (cultural) Geography
What is Culture
- Application of "culture" to the study of earth
- Compliment of physical geography
Chapter 1 Geography Matters
- Collective learned behavior (not inherited),
i.e. language, clothing, food, religion,
- Beliefs & attitudes are reflected in buildings,
A. Place 1) unique 2) influential 3) interdependent
B. Globalization - Increasing Interconnectedness of
different parts of the world.
- power of place (government buildings)
C. Studying Geography
- Economic - multi national corporations (management,
- Environment - global concept (warming).
- Political - U. N, Kyoto Protocol, NAFTA.
- Cultural - rock n roll, levies, McDonald's
September 6, 2004
- Space analysis -- a) location b) distance (in
miles or in time) c) space/shape d) accessability
e) spatial interaction i) positions in psychology,
Freud & free association, Sullivan &
schizophrenia, William Reich & direction giving,
Gestalt & assorted positions.
Types of space
September 8, 2004
|Types Of Space||Film Demonstration|
|Nature / Human||Never Cry Wolf|
|Urban (food, language, technology)
|Outer Space, Dream Space||Star Trek|
The Five Fundamental Themes of Geography
Visit www.ncge.org or
- Location - absolute or relative
- exactly where you are.
- someplace in Southern California
- Place - human & physical characteristics (i. e. population maps)
- Human environment interaction (i. e. shake map of San Francisco)
- Movement map - traffic, bird migration, whale migration, travel.
- Region - areas with similar characteristics.
I. Why Maps
II. The Geographic Grid
- Record, communicate information.
- Indicate distance & direction ( traffic).
- Patterns formed by distribution on earths surface.
A) Latitude & longitude
September 14, 2004
1. Claudius Ptolemy - 2nd Century AD, Alexandria, Egypt.
B) Latitude - north & south measurements on the globe
2. Used angular measurements (chaldrens).
1. Range is 0° - 90° north & south.
2. Lines run horizontally around the globe.
1. Lines always go through the poles.
D) Degrees, minutes, seconds.
2. They run vertically.
3. Range 0° - 180° east & west.
4. East & west measurements.
Zero to one degree latitude ≈ 111 kilometers or ≈ 69 miles.
1° = 60 minutes, 60'.
Latin root: minutiae primary, minutiae, secondary.
1' = 60 seconds, 60".
D) Notation degrees (°), minutes ('), seconds ("). 42° 30' N.
III. Map Requirements
Some atlases use decimal. i. e. 42.5° -- -- --
42° 30.5' = 42° 30' 30".
E) Names of lines of latitude & longitude.
1. Latitude parallels, (latitude fatitude).
Mnemonic memory tools, parallels of latitude.
2. Meridians of longitude, (the long measurement of a human is top to bottom).
3. Prime Meridian.
A. Title -- Five Themes of Geography: 1) location 2) place 3) human interaction
4) movement 5) region.
September 16, 2004
B. North arrow -- 1) north 2) magnetic north 3) grid north.
Declination is the coordinate difference between magnetic and grid north.
C. Scale -- distance.
1) representative fraction -- 1 / 10 or 1 : 10 (no units involved).
D. Legend -- what different colors or symbols mean.
2) written expression -- 1" = 12,000,000 -- or -- 1" = 1,000,000'.
3) graphic scale --
E. Geographic grids or boundaries.
F. Source -- who made it.
G. Date -- things change.
H. Projections there is distortion at the poles.
1. Mercator or cylindrical projections are distortion prone.
2. Conical projections are good for mid-latitudes. There is also polyconic.
3. Planar / Polar.
Find 47° 30' N 19° 05' E
Globalization refers to the increasing political, economic and cultural interconnectedness of
different places around the world.
The emergence of a global hierarchy of countries based on political & economic power as well as
The world is characterized by high levels of political and economic competition between places and
regions as well as by increasing levels of interdependence.
Countries that dominate are called core countries. Dominated, less diversified countries are called
periphery countries. In between are the so called semi-periphery.
The core became dominate because it has the capital and the power.
The pace of international migration has accelerated as a result of:
Geographers call this time-space compression.
International migration has created new kinds of social landscapes and a dual national identity,
- Technological innovations, especially in travel.
- The international economy's flip side is a disruption in local economies.
The spread and dominance of the capitalist economic system is dominated by fewer and fewer large
|2000 U. S. census|
|U. S. A.||12.5||7.3|
|L. A. County||44.6||32|
|% Latino||% Mexican|
The various components of globalization include:
The displacement of traditional political & economic entities.
September 21, 2004
Environmental issues are transnational.
Widening gulf between rich & poor, and the erosion of a middle class.
Cultural-hybridization, the spreading, mixing, and blending of styles.
Political interconnectedness through colonialism, warfare, treaty, and
Widespread local resistance to extra-local & global domination.
Chapter 3 - Geographies of Population
I. Demographics (demography) -- the study of people.
A. A statistical analysis of human populations.
September 23, 2004
We have a census every 10 years. It is used to distribute federal funds and apportion
PRB -- population reference bureau.
World population data sheets.
Pop clock: go to any search engine and type popclock
California's population is 34.5 million. That is a 4% increase over 2000.
||Millions Of People
||% Of World|
If every one on the planet was given 4' sq., side by side, we would
take up ≈ 800 sq. miles (28.8 mi. X 28.8 mi.).
B. Physiological Density -- The "S" shaped curve:
Factors Controlling Population
Climate -- too cold, to hot, temperate.
100 people per square mile is dense for farming but sparse for industrial work.
Water -- 75% of earth is water.
|Standards of living --
|health care||security / crime / terrorism|
theoretically, after initial explosive growth, a populations
growth must level off when it reaches the limit of it's resources.
September 28, 2004
- Patterns of natality (birth).
A. Do not necessarily correspond to highly populated areas.
B. Reason for more birth in less developed countries:
C. There are higher birth rates where the women
high infant mortality rates
support in old age
- Patterns of mortality
A. Related to birth rates.
B. Postponed by technological advances.
C. Higher rate in older populations.
- Population explosion -- "J" shaped curve:
Human Population Growth.
The population is expected to double by 2050, primarily due to a decrease in the death rate.
The human population on this planet first reached one billion in the early 1800's. It took
around 25 million years to to that.
|≈ 1820||25 million
September 30, 2004
- Perception of Population Growth
||Malthusians -- Thomas Malthus (≈ 1800) wrote
Essays On The Principles Of Population. An economist, he
was concerned with and writing about the food supply.
Population increases geometrically 2, 4, 8, 16, 32. But
agricultural production increases arithmetically 1, 2, 3,
4, 5. He expected the world to run out of food. So far it
hasn't happened because of technological advances, i. e.
hybridization and propagation.|
||Cornucopeans -- (horn of plenty) believe that we will
always have food because humans will always be able
to conquer nature.|
|C. ||The answer is in the middle.|
- Geography of Population Growth
- Age and gender population.
A. Population pyramids.
||T P = N I + N M|
|Where||T P = total population|
|N I = natural increases ( births - deaths)|
|N M = net migration (immigration - emigration)
- Standard of Living -- income, crime, health care, education, political freedom.
- Push-pull factors.
C. Diffusion in population geography
D. Population Ecology -- populations ability to adapt to new environments.
- Types of diffusion
a. Contagious Diffusion -- transmitted from knower
to non-knower, who then becomes a knower and
transmits to other non-knowers, who become...
There must be human contact.
b. Relocation diffusion -- to move to a new area,
i. e. missionaries.
c. Hierarchal diffusion -- skips those not in the loop.
- Migration -- groups
These are identified by push pull factors
- Relocation migration
a. Move a great distance.
b. Push pull factors.
c. The root causes are deep / there is no alternative.
Pre adaptation -- pre conditional to survive in a place like the one you
know, i. e. similar food resources.
October 5, 2004
- Environmental influences
a. Natural resources -- conditions of physical environment,
terrain, climate, vegetation. "Topophilia" is the love of
the land. Most people want to live in a place that resembles
where they grew up.
b. Historically people preferred to live around water for food, trade,
- Environmental perceptions -- views of the environment change over time.
Dr. Hay displayed containers of sun tan and sun screen lotion.
The only difference on the labels were the words "tan"
and "screen". To much sun in now considered negatively.
- Population density -- environmental alteration -- uneven resource consumption.
The U. S. consumes 40% of the worlds resources but has only 5% of
the worlds population.
The test scheduled next Tuesday is postponed to Thursday.
E. Cultural Integration & Population Patterns.
- Cultural Factors
a. Food -- where it's grown
b. Family Size -- In Central Brazil there are two tribes:
- S. E. Asia -- rice (wet lowlands)
- Ireland -- potatoes - in the 1700's potatoes were imported
from Peru. More food was produced per acre, and that
allowed an increase in the population. Unfortunately,
the potato blight caused starvation and a huge migration.
Then the population decreased.
c. Religious Beliefs -- Some stay close to home.
- Tapirape -- limit family size so they can eat meat. Each family
is limited to three children, two of the same gender.
The population enforces this with infanticide.
- Tenetehara -- there is no population control. The local population
has decimated local game. They rarely have meat on
- Chinese take care of ancestral graves.
They can't go far from home.
- Navajo bury the umbilical cord in the "hogan",
thereby tying the infant to the land.
- In N. W. India women marry outside their village, to
prevent incestuous birth defects.
- The Irish have proven to be very willing to migrate. The current
population is 1/2 of what it was in 1840.
- Political Factors -- Government Factors Restricting Migration.
a. Chinese and Thai are restricted.
b. Haiti has 600 people per square mile. To protect it's standard of living,
the Dominican Republic has closed it's border, to keep them
- Economic Factors
a. Industrialization (last 200 years). The majority of the population
moved from rural areas to the cities.
b. There has been a major change from substance agriculture to either
commercial agriculture or a plantation system.
October 7, 2004 Test I
October 12, 2004
October 14, 2004
Test Results: 5 A's, 8 B's, 19 C's, 7 D's, and 1 F.
Saw slides from around the world that highlighted cultural architecture.
Extra Credit handout
I. Nature, Society, & Technology.
- Nature as a physical construct as well as a social construct.
a. A product of the times & needs (human understanding).
Today conservation means "preservation".
b. The way we perceive nature changes.
In 1940 it meant "total use".
We used to say that old forests were "dark and forboding".
c. Environmental determinism:
Now we call them "old growth forest".
- Around 1920, Ellen Churchill Semple said people are a product of their
environment. So I ask, are all people from Kentucky long, lean, and not to
bright, as people from Kentucky are known to be.
- The French Geographer Ratzel noted that all the smart people seemed
to live in the lowlands, by the river. Therefore, he claimed,
mountain environments made people dumb.
- Eventually environmental determinism was dismissed.
- Sum of inventions, institutions, and relationships created by people.
- Society and Nature are interrelated.
a. Nature is created by society.
b. Relationship between nature & society is mediated by
D. Effect of Nature, Society, and Technology on the Environment:
- There are three components of technology.
a. Physical objects or artifacts such as "the plow" or
"Swiss Army Knives".
b. Activities or processes such as "steel making" and
c. Knowledge or know how such as "biological engineering" or
- In the last 75 years a species has become capable of destroying
a. number of people.
b. money (per capital income).
- Formula: I = P A T, where
I = impact on earth
The formula is complex. i. e. Is more people "good"
P = population
A = affluence (money)
T = technology
October 19, 2004
Extra Credit Candidate: the movie Macumba, Trance and Spirit Healing,
Wednesday, October 20, 2004, WH D470, 12:00 - 1:00.
II. Religious Perspectives on Nature
B. Judeo - Christian Perspective
- Nature is anything not fabricated by humans.
C. Taoist Perspective
- Nature is created by God.
- Nature is subject to God (parent - child relationship).
There is a God given right to build.
- Humans are made in God's image.
- Humans should dominate nature.
D. Buddhist Perspective
- Nature should be valued for it's own sake.
It should not be exploited.
- The emphasis is on harmony with nature, it is
complex and should be respected.
E. Islamic Perspective
- Nothing exists alone. Everything is part of the natural.
This is complex. The emphasis is on totality and
- Feng Shui - used to design villages and homes in harmony
with all the world. Apparently they invented the compass
to help do this.
- Ying and yang.
F. Animist Perspective
- Heaven and earth were made for human purposes.
- Much like the Judeo - Christian perspective.
|Jewish Religion||4,000 years old|
|Christian Religion||2,004 years old|
||1,300 years old|
Power Point Presentation:
- Animate and inanimate objects all posses a spirit or consciousness.
- Humans can not be separated from nature.
October 21, 2004
- Natural Landscapes: features of the earth's surface that have not been
changed by human contact.
- Cultural Landscapes: society produces a distinct cultural landscape.
i. e. pictures of NYC and a Bedouin shepherd with his flock.
- Carl Sauer (1889 - 1975):
Culture is the agent
Natural landscape is the medium
Cultural landscape is the result
- Cultural Ecology: the study of relationships between people and the
- Social attitudes toward nature, natural landscapes and natural
- The technologies the societies use.
- The landscapes and the impact societies have on them.
- Political Ecology: the study of the distribution of societies resources.
- Nature as offering opportunities. Technology overcomes the limits,
conquest and ownership.
- Opportunities and challenges but also limits which must be
There is land use and there is land ownership.
- Technologies - tools used to act on and alter landscapes,
both physical and/or ways of thinking.
- How do we measure society's impact on nature and the landscape.
I = P A T
impact, population, affluence, technology
- GNP - a crude measure of consumption.
- Negative effects:
- pollution i.e. sulfate deposits and acid rain.
- pollution concentrations are generally in
- Pollution has 4 waste moments:
- Deforestation - permanent clearing and destruction of forests.
- How much affluence is too much?
- Are wealthier countries more active in protecting their environments
than poor ones?
- Must progress degrade the environment?
Homwork assignment: Record all the clothes you wear for
7 days. Note the type of clothing and the place of
2 hand out.
Next Extra Credit chance: Folk Healing In The Mayan Culture,
Wednesday, October 27, noon, WH C490B.
I. Mapping Cultural Identities
A. Cultural as a geographic process
II. Geography And Language
B. Cultural Geography
- Culture - a shared set of meanings that we
live through material and symbolic practices
in every day life.
- Cultural landscape - the material expression
of culture (Carl Sauer) as humans impact the
C. Cultural Complexes
- Humans use culture to shape place and
- Space, place, and landscape shape
- Combination of traits and characteristics
that are particular to one group.
- Working class culture - hard working, blue collar
work, low wages, family, high morals.
- Hip hop culture - white tees, jewelry (bling
- Corporate culture.
- NASCAR culture.
- Condition or essence of culture.
- Single most important culture variable.
- Basic for learning other cultural elements.
- Language - basic linguistic unit. These are not
- Dialect - varies in pronunciation, grammer, and
spelling. These are mutually intelligible.
- Pidgin - small vocabulary created from parts
of other languages. They are created for the sake
- Lingua (tongue) Franca - mutually understood
language. It has an elevated status.
The worlds Lingua Franca is English.
Swahili is the trade language in East Africa.
Wolof is the trade language of West Africa.
salam mulicum - peace to you
mulicum salam - peace to you also
nanga def - how are you
mangi fe rek - OK, I'm here
anawa ker ga - how's the family house
nunga fa - they're there
al hum delali - go with god
October 26, 2004
Lingua Franca - World - English
Dialect vs. Language, ebonics is iffy.
C. Linguistic Culture Region
- There are between 2,500 - 4, 000 languages. Some say there are more that 6,000.
a. Limited information about isolated areas.
b. Difficult to determine if something is a dialect or a language.
c. Difficult to specify boundaries.
Isogloss - language region borders.
- Language Families - Languages descending from a common ancestor.
Latin (Romance Languages)
- Spoken by the upper class in the Roman Empire (27 B.C. - 284 A.D.).
- Spread to colonies.
- With the fall of the empire, communication channels collapsed.
- People became isolated.
- Different dialects and languages formed.
- The Romance languages are
Spanish, Portuguese, French, Italian, and Romanian.
- Major Language Families
a. Indo - European, the largest
b. Afro Asiatic (Hammo Semitic)
- English has 443 million speakers. It is also 80% of computer technology.
- Hindi had 352 million speakers.
- Spanish has 341 million speakers.
- Russian had 293 million speakers.
c. Niger - Congo (the Bantu subgroup has over 80 languages).
- Arabic has 200 million speakers.
- Hebrew was largely a ceremonial language until 1947. As
Israelis spoke a polyglot of languages, the government set
a common language, an updated Hebrew.
It is a "Shatterbelt of linguistic diversity".
d. Malayo Polynesian
- Sino Tibetan - Chinese has 850 million speakers.
- Altaic - Turkey, Mongolian, Korea, Japan.
October 28, 2004
Extra Credit Candidates
Day of the dead celebration - CSUDH, Friday, film, 12:00 LCH A103
Power Point Presentation On Symbolization
Bowers Museum - "Unveiling the Queen of Sheeba", Santa Ana
Historical History - old and new.
Palimpsest - when an artist reuses a canvas
the building in the slide was once a Masonic Temple,
movie theater, hardware store. The architecture showed all three.
pyramids, Statue of Liberty, gang graffiti.
Mecca, Dome of the Rock, traffic fatality shrine, Ganges River.
bombing range, inner city, abandoned steel mill.
Due to globalization, places & landscapes are less distinct.
The privileging of private spaces, restricted access and surveillance,
commercial space over public space.
D. Linguistic Landscapes
- Imprint of language on the cultural and visible landscape.
Formal - bill boards.
Informal - graffiti.
- Words effect perception.
Think of "NYC".
Now put the word "crime" in front of that.
Now put "corporate" in front of that.
November 2, 2004
No class Thursday, November 11th
III. Religious Realms
A. Religion - a set of beliefs and practices.
B. Geography Of Religions.
- Reasons for religion.
a. Explanations and understandings of nature.
b. Set of morals or rules to live by.
c. Provides organization for beliefs and practices.
C. Two Major Categories Of Religion.
- Sacred Space - special places of worship.
a. Jerusalem - Jews / Christians / Muslims.
- Less Formally - churches, larger meeting areas.
- Religion impacts where people can go.
D. Origins Of Major Religions - Two Areas
- Proselytic or Evangelizing - actively seeking converts.
- Ethnic - born into the religion, not actively seeking membership.
E. Major And Minor Religions
- Middle East (fertile crescent between the Tigress and
Semitic speaking people of the dry lands
Judaism - 4,000 years old.
Christianity - 2,000 years old.
Islam - 1,300 years old.
- Indus - Ganges Hearth (northern India)
Hinduism - 4,000 yrs old.
Buddhism - 2,500 years old.
Major - Christianity, Islam, Hinduism, Buddhism.
Minor - Judaism, Animism.
November 4, 2004
Test Tuesday, Nov. 16, 2004.
More On Regions. They are:
- Formal: have like characteristics, i. e. corn growing.
- Functional: control is associated with. They have nodes of controll
and they can overlap, i. e. federal,
state, and local government, or parishes and diocese.
- Vernacular: based on feelings, perceptions, i. e. "Bronco" country.
E. Major And Minor Religions
November 9, 2004
Major - Christianity, Islam, Hinduism, Buddhism.
Minor - Judaism, Animism.
a. Greatest number of members - 1.9 billion, almost a
third of the world's population
b. Widely dispersed.
c. Mostly Catholic and in Europe and Latin America.
d. Fragmented into many groups.
1) Two main groups, western and eastern.
a) Western groups are mostly Catholic, about 20% of
the world population.
2) Eastern Christian (Greek)
b) Protestants (reformation was in the 1400 and 1500s).
There are Baptists, Mormon, Lutheran, Flagellants
(1800's), Episcopal, Methodist, ...
a) Coptic Christians - Egypt (minority), Ethiopian
b) Eastern Orthodox - split from Greek. Majority in
Greece, Russia, and Serbia.
- Islam - Arabic for submission to God.
a. Origin - Saudi Arabia.
b. Mecca - the city where Muhammad received his revelations
from God (Allah).
c. Monotheistic - one God.
d. Major duties - the Five Pillars.
1) There is only one God, Mohammed is his prophet.
e. Islamic teachings provided a unifying life style.
2) Pray 5 times per day, facing Mecca.
3) Fast from sunrise to sunset during the holy month
4) Give alms to the poor.
5) Make a pilgrimage to Mecca once in your life, Hajj.
1) Set of values, dignity to the Arab world.
f. Geographic Diffusion.
2) Originally there was feudal chaos.
1) Universalizing faith.
g. Split based on successor to Muhammad.
2) North Africa, south west Asia, and south east
3) The largest concentration of followers is in
4) There are 820 million followers.
1) Sunnite (orthodox) - majority.
2) Shiite - 11% of the total. In Iran they have the
Ayatollah. Shiites pay zakat (alms) to the holy
Power Point Presentation.
a. Geography, fertile crescent
b. Major Beliefs
- 1.8 million followers - 40% are in the
U. S., 25% in Israel, and 20% in Europe.
- God as creator.
- God is above nature.
- Abraham was called on to build the nation of
- Prophet - Moses.
- Old Testament
- They inhabited Israel until 70 A. D.
- Then the Romans destroyed Jerusalem.
- A period of dispersal began.
- Usually they were a persecuted minority.
- The Zionist movement began in the 20th
Century. Zion is a hill in Jerusalem, a
sacred place. A third of all Jews were killed during
W. W. II. Those remaining pushed for a homeland.
After W. W. II Palestine and Jordan were under
British rule. In 1948 the U. N. recognized Israel
as a country. A world wide migration began.
- The creation of Israel was not well accepted in the
Arab world. Battles over land forced Palestinians
into refugee camps in Lebanon and Jordan.
a. 650 million followers.
b. Origin - Indus Ganges Hearth.
d. The caste system is based on ancestry. Your occupation is based
on your caste. You change castes through reincarnation.
e. They do not eat beef.
f. Sikhism (1500s), Hindus joining Islamic religion.
- Rejected the caste system.
- N. W. India
- 1.8 million followers.
- One god.
a. There may be 300 million followers. Different variations
incorporated existing religions so there is a
issue of specificity.
b. Reform movement within Hinduism with no caste system.
c. Prince Siddhartha was the founder.
d. Oral teaching, no written record.
- Lived a life of luxury until he was 29.
- Mediated until reaching enlightenment.
- Wandered from place to place.
e. The Four Nobel Truths.
f. It merged with Taoism, Confucianism, and Shintaoism in
China, Japan and Tibet.
- Life is suffering.
- Desire is the cause of all suffering.
- Stop desiring, stop suffering.
- Eight-fold path. The 3 categories are morality,
wisdom, and concentration.
a. Tribal people not practicing a major religion.
b. Inanimate objects have spirits.
c. A person in the tribe usually acts as an intermediary to the
d. Interior of Africa, Amazon Basin, Central America.
e. They seem primitive but can be very complex.
Gothic (light and airy) Cathedral.
Catholicism, this is God's house.
Protestant have assembly halls.
Mormon Temple with the Angel Moroni at the top.
Mosque with minarets and domes.
Buddhist pagodas. They are tiered.
Western Wall in Jerusalem. The Dome of the Rock is right
Mardi Gras celebration.
Atonement ritual, evil is transfered into a chicken.
November 11, 2004 No Class
November 16, 2004 Test II
November 18, 2004 Homework III Due
Reviewed the test, grades were about the same.
Watched a movie on Madagascar and their environment.
Local farmers are decimating the jungle, home of the Lemur.
In an effort to save the jungle, Lemur friendly coffee is
being promoted by the Corridor Coffee and Spices Corporation.
Coffee growing does less damage than sugar beets.
November 23, 2004
clothes production - 3rd world (developing)
Chapter #8: Agriculture And Food Production.
┕> low cost of labor.
China - major manufacturer of every thing.
Specialty items made in countries that support/enjoy those items (cultural).
Taiwan - cheaper items.
Shoes - China/Taiwan/Philippines.
Specific manufacturers make clothes in one/or many places.
Manufacturers have access to ports.
I. Agriculture - tilling crops and rearing animals.
A. Historically the # 1 activity of humans.
B. Globally the most important activity economically.
- 45% of the worlds population is involved.
a. Asia - 80% involved.
b. U. S. - 5% involved - in 1910 there were 32 million farmers in the U. S.
Today there is less than 5 million.
c. Two main categories:
- Subsistence (food for personal consumption)
- Commercial (food for market, surplus)
Types of Agricultural Regions
- Shifting Agriculture
a. Americas, Indonesia, Africa, SE Asia
b. Land rotation system
4-5 years of use, 10-20 years fallow
c. Intertillage - multiple crops in one area
d. Low tech, hand tools, little/no fertilizer
e. Little labor, tending of plants
f. Little/no livestock
g. provide more calories than expended when compared to high tech farming
- Rice Paddy Farming (paddy - mud diked flooded field)
a. humid tropical, subtropical Asia (Indian monsoon)
b. 95% of worlds rice grown in paddies
c. Labor intensive/double cropping
d. high output per acre (one hectare supports a farm family in Asia)
SUBSISTENCE AND COMMERCIAL
- Peasant Grain, Root and Livestock Farming
a. colder dryer parts of Asia (unsuited for paddies) and highlands of
Latin America, Africa, Europe
b. grains; wheat, barley, oats, corn
c. cash crops; cotton, flax, tobacco
d. herds; cattle, pigs, sheep
- Mediterranean Agriculture
a. lands bordering the Mediterranean
b. winter wheat and barley
c. vine and tree agriculture (grapes, olives)
d. herding sheep and goats
e. recently (1850) irrigation has led to citrus and market gardening
- Nomadic Herding (continued movement)
a. desert steppes, Savannah of Africa, Arabia, Asia
b. people with livestock in search of forage
c. lowlands - winter - steppes / mountains - summer
d. now on the decline (Saudi ESON project)
no feral camels, military, strong chiefs
- Plantation Agriculture - talked about Dutch plantations in Java
b. Central/South America, Africa, E&W Indies, US South
c. Large, foreign owned
d. specialize in one or two crops - sugar cane, bananas, coffee, tobacco
e. takes land from subsistence agriculture
f. labor problems - cotton plantation in the Old South
g. mechanization - neoplantation, people out of work head towards cities
- Market Gardening (truck farms)
a. developed countries
b. single crop, intensively cultivated
c. fruits, vegetables, vine crops
d. near major urban markets for quick transport
(Japanese vegetable gardens in Colorado - night soil)
- Commercial Livestock Fattening
a. Midwest United States
b. cattle and hogs
c. feedlots - raise livestock on commercial feed
d. not nutritionally efficient
1 cow eats 21 pounds of protein to produce 1 pound of protein
food that feeds 250 million US, feeds 1.5 billion Chinese
1/2 US grain for livestock feed, expanding to Costa Rica, Brazil
- Commercial Grain Farming
a. primarily wheat, also rice and corn
b. 45% of world's wheat; North America, Ukraine, Russia, Argentina
c. very large single crop farms - agribusiness
d. highly mechanized, fertilizers, pesticides, rice sown by airplane
e. suit case farms
post WW II
line of farms North to South
fleets of machinery, crews
uninhabited - family farms declining
- Commercial Dairying
a. pastures vs feedlots
b. Northern US, New England, Midwest, North and West Europe,
SE Australia, North New Zealand
c. close to markets - fluid milk
far from market - butter (New Zealand) cheese
d. increasing numbers using the feedlot system
buy cows ready to produce
buy feed from outside
- Livestock Ranching
a. similar to nomadic herding, but fixed in place
b. operate as an individual rather than a tribe
c. usually in areas too cold for farming
Argentina - 73% of the world's wool
Australia - sheep outnumber people 8:1
- Non-Agricultural Areas
a. Everyone before there where agricultural areas
b. currently < 1%
Inuit (Eskimos) - movie "Never Cry Wolf" - Aborigines - Australia
November 25, 2004 Thanksgiving Day.
November 30, 2004
III Origins Of Agricultural Production
A. Agriculture implies domestication.
IV Two Geographers.
- Bringing about changes in plants and animals.
Bigger is better.
Corn was originally 3/4" long.
Beefalo - cow and buffalo.
- Better suited to societies than conditions of the
Early colonists - cattle grazed in the woods - became feral,
smaller but hardy.
Original grains - not as productive as today's grains but
didn't need as much care.
- Plant domestication - 10,000 to 15,000 years ago.
a. Reasons for domestication.
1) Crops and animals always available.
2) Increasing population outgrew hunting and
- Domestication increases carrying capacity.
a. Hunting and gathering supports one person / km2
b. Early dry farming supports one to 2 people / km2
A. Carl Sauer (1889-1975)
December 2, 2004
Studied pre-conditions for plant domestication.
B. Johann Von Thunen (1783-1850)
- No chronic need for food.
- Climate variability.
- Various types of plants and animals (a large gene pool).
- Other physical requirements, soil ...
- Based on these assumptions
Wet - dry monsoon areas of SE Asia.
Woodlands (near streams) of India.
Sedentary fishing / gathering societies.
- Others thought it was the "Fertile Crescent" of the
- Animal domestication (not Sauer)
Later than crops.
Animals may have domesticted themselves
(dogs and bears get in the garbage).
- German estate landlord.
- Wanted to maximize profits.
- Originator of spatial models. He studied different
types of agriculture and where it should be located.
- Isolated state model
||Using the variables of cost of land, cost of transportation,
and cost of labor, what order should these things be in?
- central city
- livestock fattening
- dairying (pastures)
- market gardening
- commercial grain farms
Chapter 9: Politics Of Territory And Space
I. Political Geography
- Study of boundaries.
- Strategic use of land / topography.
- World balance of power.
- Distribution of territory.
- Study of voting patterns.
- Jurisdiction over maritime space.
III. Independent States.
- State - self governed group occupying a defined territory.
- Nation - people united by a common culture.
They have common historical and/or ethnic roots.
- Nation State - people united by a common culture in a defined territory.
- All space is politically organized.
This has come about in the last 150 years.
- Must be recognized.
- Must have borders.
- Must have relations with other independent states.
IV. Political Landscapes
- Characteristics of independent states.
- Regulate production.
- Collect taxes.
- Enforce laws.
- There are about 190 independent states.
- The largest states are federations of states.
- U. S., Canada.
- They are too big to be governed as one unit.
- Size matters
- Shape matters
- South Africa is a perforated state. It has holes (Swaziland) in it.
- Folk Fortress - natural environments that are barriers to opposing
forces (oceans, mountains, deserts).
Handout: Study Guide #3
- Borders - physical representation of a political border.
- Great Wall in China.
- Mile markers between the U. S. and Mexico.
- States - physical representation.
December 7, 2004 Test 3
December 9, 2004
December 14, 2004 Final Exam - 4:00 - 6:00.